1. Remember that confidence is a changeable mindset not a fixed personality trait.
2. Frame tasks as a learning process not an evaluation.
3. Instil belief that ability is changeable, that people will progress if they apply themselves and that there are many ways to succeed.
4. Focus on specific aspects of competency that are important to the person for self-efficacy in goal achievement.
5. Treat mistakes as an essential part of learning by linking failures to factors that the person can repair.
6. Encourage an accurate match between aspirations and skills level.
7. Praise effort and use of skills to make people feel responsible for success and make optimistic explanations of progress.
8. Stress personal rather than normative success - how they are smart not how smart they are.
Copyright: Alan McLean, 2006