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References for handbook chapters 1-10

Below are some references for the handbook.


Ix    Scotland’s young people… Quotation from Graham Donaldson in Improving Scottish Education – a report by HMIE on Inspection and review 2002- 2005, p1

    Learning from America’s mistakes… Part 2 of this book presents evidence to support these claims.

Chapter 1

2     However there is general agreement… See Martin Seligman, The Optimistic Child and Roy Baumeister et al, ‘Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness or healthier lifestyles?’

Ordinary realities are strewn… Albert Bandura, ‘Self-Efficacy’, 1994 paper, p 4.  

Scheier and Carver, for example… See Scheier, F. M., Carver. S.C. & Bridges W.M., 1994, ‘Distinguishing Optimism from Neuroticism (and Trait Anxiety, Self-mastery, and Self-esteem) A Re-evaluation of the Life Orientation Test’, Journal of personality and Social Psychology, l67(6), 1063-1078. See also Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1993). On the power of positive thinking: The benefits of being optimistic. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2, 26-30..

6    Increase in choice and opportunities… For a discussion of the importance of choice and its negative effects see Barry Schwartz, The Paradox of Choice.

The mass media and social comparisons… Oliver James presents more information on this in his 2007 book Affluenza.

Now the service sector provides… Data can be found in various SE Glasgow publications. See also Chris Warhurst, Dennis Nickson, Anne Wirtz & Anne Marie Cullen, 2000, ‘Aesthetic labour in interactive service work: some case study evidence from the “new” Glasgow’, The Service Industries Journal, 20(3), 1-18.

Ours is the knowledge economy… There are lots of publications on this topic. See, for example, Nicolai J. Foss, 2005, Strategy, Economic Organization and the Knowledge Economy, Oxford University Press, Oxford. For Adair Turner’s views see his article ‘Not the e-conomy’ in Prospect, April 2001, No.62.

Chapter 2

10     There is now an almost automatic assumption… Frank Furedi, Therapy Culture, p155.

The idea of self-esteem has a positive… See John P. Hewitt ‘The Social Construction of Self-Esteem’

Nathanial Branden, the intellectual father… Branden’s views on self-esteem are best set out in his book The Six Pillars of Self-Esteem.

In the UK too… For a review of the UK’s approach to self-esteem see Furedi’s Therapy Culture, the Demos Report ‘The Self-Esteem Society’ and the Work Foundation’s ‘Me, Myself and Work’.

Though an overweening conceit… David Hume, Treatise on Human Nature, Vol2.

A short history of self-esteem… The material in this section can mainly be found in Seligman’s The Optimistic Child, Jean Twenge’s Generation Me and Nicholas Emler’s The Costs and Causes of Low Self-worth.

11     The challenge to these claims… See Baumeister et al’s paper ‘Does High Self-Esteem Cause Better Performance, Interpersonal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles’ and Nicholas Emler’s The Costs and Causes of Low Self-worth.

Self-esteem as a construct… Lauren Slater, ‘The Trouble with Self-esteem’, New York Times, February 3, 2002.

Self-esteem in the UK… See the note above for p10 on self-esteem in the UK.

Most people feel… Roy Baumeister et al, p1.

14     Self-esteem research… The information here is mainly drawn from Nicholas Emler’s book, Baumeister et al’s 2003 paper and Jean Twenge’s Generation Me.

Students may ordinarily work hard… Baumeister et al, p13.

15    The results were consistent with the view   … Baumeister et al, p24.

16     … in performance contexts… Baumeister et al, p15.

Taken together these findings… Baumeister et al, p25.

17 Box 3:     Summary of evidence on self-esteem… This summary is taken from data presented by Nicholas Emler and Baumeister et al.

18     The difference is highly consistent… Nicholas Emler, p37.

Those blessed with high self-esteem… Nicholas Emler, p40.

19     About a third of the variation… Nicholas Emler, p44.

It seems that the actual reactions… Nicholas Emler, p44.

Confidence is a sweet spot… Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Confidence: Leadership and the Psychology of Turnarounds, p8.

Having high self-esteem is equivalent… Robert Reasoner, The True Meaning of Self-Esteem, document on National Association for Self-Esteem website - http://www.self-esteem-nase.org/whatisselfesteem.shtml

20     One does not need to be a trained psychologist… Nathanial Branden, The Seven Pillars of Self-Esteem.

The National Association for Self-Esteem… Information on NASE can be found on their website http://www.self-esteem-nase.org


Chapter 3

21    The therapeutic imperative… Frank Furedi, Therapy Culture, p21.

23    Baby-boomer childrearing… Martin Seligman, The Optimistic Child, p23

Box 6:     Under the banner… For supporting evidence see Maureen Stout, The Feel Good Curriculum: The Dumbing Down of America’s Kids in the Name of Self-Esteem, Charles J. Sykes  Dumbing Down Our Kids: Why American Children Feel Good About Themselves But Can't Read, Write, or Add and Jean Twenge, Generation Me.

24    Self-esteem is like the speedometer… This is a quotation form a lecture given by Professor Martin Seligman for the Vanguard Programme organised by the Centre for Confidence and Well-being in Glasgow in September 2005.

What California (and every state)… The Optimistic Child, p35.

If your child suffers from feelings of worthlessness… The Optimistic Child, p34.

Only three per cent of women… This data was presented by Professor Seligman at his Vanguard lecture. He also includes data on depression in Authentic Happiness and The Optimistic Child.

25     Seligman outlines a number of reasons… He does this in The Optimistic Child pp42-45.

In order for your child to experience mastery… The Optimistic Child, p44.

26    Generation Me… Most of the information in this section is from Jean Twenge’s book of this name. However, she also gave a lecture for the CCWB and it is available on the Positive Psychology Resources section of the website http://www.centreforconfidence.co.uk/pp/audio.php?p=c2lkPTY=#16                           Jean Twenge’s data is also available on the website as slides to accompany her lecture.

27    As commendable as it is… Lillian G. Katz, ‘Distinctions between Self-Esteem and Narcissism, Implications for Practice’ (2003)  available from http://ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/eecearchive/books/selfe

28    I often feel that many of us… Jean Twenge, p115.

One of the strangest things about modern life… Jean Twenge, p116.

Suppose you are a student… Jean Twenge, p147.

29    The Costly Pursuit of Self-Esteem… Most of the information here is contained in Jennifer Crocker and Lora E. Park’s article of this name. However, Professor Crocker gave a lecture for the CCWB and it is available on the Positive Psychology Resources section of the website http://www.centreforconfidence.co.uk/pp/audio.php?p=c2lkPTY=#16   Professor Crocker’s data is also available on the website as are slides to accompany her lecture.

The person who is not concerned… Crocker and Park, p397.

People are not merely passive victims… Crocker and Park, p393.  

Taken together these ideas… Crocker and Park, p396.

30     Self-Determination Theory… Information on this, its theoretical and empirical research base and associated reading can be found at the following website http://www.psych.rochester.edu/SDT

When people discount, dismiss or excuse… Crocker and Park, p400.

31    Followers of Ayn Rand… See Robert Campbell and Walter Foddis ‘Is High Self-Esteem Bad for You?’ It is available on the web at http://www.objectivistcenter.org/showcontent.aspx?ct=670&h=53

Theorists such as Albert Ellis… Ellis’s critique of self-esteem, including Nathanial Branden’s views is the focus of his book The Myth of Self-Esteem.

32    It certainly had this effect on Alan McLean… The article is called ‘Good Teachers Don’t Need Therapy’, TES Scotland, August 20, 2004.

The proposition that certain groups… Frank Furedi, Therapy Culture, p148.

Chapter 4

34    If we look at America’s record… The information in this section comes mainly from the National Association for Educational Progress’s Annual Report Card (2005) ; Charles J. Sykes, Dumbing Down Our Kids: Why American Children Feel Good About Themselves But Can't Read, Write, or Add, Jean Twenge’s Generation Me and Maureen Stout, The Feel Good Curriculum: The Dumbing Down of America’s Kids in the Name of Self-Esteem.

The Nation’s response… A good summary of recent developments in US education can be found on the PHI Delta Kappa International (The Professional Association in Education) website. See in particular NCLB and the Competitiveness Agenda by Frederick M. Hess and Andrew J Rotherham.  It is available also from http://www.aei.org/publications/filter.all,pubID.26339/pub_detail.asp

35    John Jacob Cannell… The first report is called ‘How Public Educators Cheat on Standardized Achievement Tests: The ‘Lake Woebegone Report’ published by Friends of Education in 1989. You can read Cannell reflect on his reports by going to the following URL http://thirdeducationgroup.org/Review/Essays/v2n1.htm

36    American employers… See Jean Twenge’s Generation Me on this topic and also Charles J. Sykes, Dumbing Down Our Kids: Why American Children Feel Good About Themselves But Can't Read, Write, or Add.

Chapter 5

40    The curse of Scotland: Alasdair Gray… Quoted in Angela Cran and James Robertson, Dictionary of Scottish Quotations, Mainstream Publishing, Edinburgh, 1996, p150.

Their egalitarianism is founded on the idea… For data on American attitudes to equality issues see Seymour Martin Lipset, American Exceptionalism: A Double-Edged Sword, WW Norton and Company, Londing, 1997.

41    Scotch Equality… David S. Robb (ed.), The Collected Poems of Alexander Scott, Mercat Press, Edinburgh, 1994, p147.

42    Ye can tell the criminal… Bill Duncan, The Wee Book of Calvin, Penguin, London 2004, pxxiii

Yer sins go doon… Bill Duncan, p47.

43    Something or somebody else must be to blame… Douglas Fraser in Tom Devine and Paddy Logue, Being Scottish, Polygon, Edinburgh, 2002, p77.

Scotch optimism… The Collected Poems of Alexander Scott, p148.

Another way of defining optimism and pessimism… This is set out in both Martin Seligman’s books, The Optimistic Child and Learned Optimism.

44    What kind of mentality… Martin Seligman, The Optimistic Child, p50.

Historians argue… See Tom Devine, The Scottish Nation 1700-2000, Allen Lane, Harmondsworth, 1999, pp468-65.

First Minister Donald Dewar reminded us… This speech and others from Donald Dewar were reprinted in Donald Dewar: A Book of Tribute published by the Scottish Parliament in 2000.

The Life Expectancy rates for men in areas of Glasgow… See article in the Scotsman at http://news.scotsman.com/index.cfm?id=11972006

45    Scottish figures for the NEET group… See ‘Enterprise and Lifelong Learning Research Findings No.32/2005: Literature Review of the NEET Group’, October 2005.

46    Even a cursory look at Scottish history… Tom Devine, in his book The Scottish Nation, outlines many of these great challenges including Scotland’s enormous war casualties. This was in part due to the fact that Scottish soldiers were often seen as particularly hardy and tough and therefore well suited for fighting in the front line.

George Scott Moncrieff described Scotland… George Scott Moncrieff, ‘Balmorality’, in David Cleghorn Thomson, Scotland in the Quest of her Youth, Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, 1932, p83.

The Scots have always had a strong notion of society… This is a theme I outline in more detail in The Scots’ Crisis of Confidence. So too is the point about logic and scepticism and mission and purpose which I make on p47.

Chapter 6

48    Facts are chiels that winna ding… Robert Burns poem A Dream (1786)

In 2005 the Scottish Executive published research… Lee Langford and C. Aitken, ‘Benchmarking Research of Young People’s Perceptions of Enterprise, Scottish Executive’.

53    International data… See the following articles: Gabhainn. N. S., Mullen. E., 2003, ‘Self-esteem Norms for Irish Young People’, Psychological Reports, 92, 829-830, Twenge, M. J., Campbell, W. K., 2001, ‘Age and Birth Cohort Differences in Self-esteem: A Cross- temporal Meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5(4), 321-344 and also Schmitt, 2005, Mean Levels on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale within 53 Nations’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(4), 623-642

Chapter 7

64     In my research I’ve been amazed… Carol Dweck, Caution: Praise can be Dangerous, p3.

Just because some people can do something… Carol Dweck, Mindset, p70.

65 … the loss of oneself to failure… Mindset, p34.

66     What’s so alarming… Mindset, p73.

The top is where the fixed mindset people… Mindset, p48.

praise, the chief weapon… Caution Praise Can be Dangerous, p1.

If praise is not handled properly… Caution Praise Can be Dangerous, p1.

67 Box 8:     Example from Mindset… This example is based on a similar one given by Carol Dweck in Mindset, pp174-5.

growth mindset people will often plunge… Mindset, p53.

68     For Dweck the really great teachers… Mindset, p195.

69     The internal critic… the quotes in this section are from Mindset, p210.

Chapter 8

72     Ordinary realities are strewn… Albert Bandura, 1994 paper, p4.

Bandura and other writers on the construct… See Parajes F. & Schunk D.H., 2001, ‘Self-Beliefs and School Success: Self-efficacy, Self-concept and School Achievement’, in R. Riding and S. Rayner (eds), 2001.

Self-efficacy beliefs determine…  Albert Bandura, 1994 paper, p6.

Some psychologists argue… See, for example, Julie K. Norem, Defensive pessimism.

Drawing on research… All the quotes in this paragraph come from Albert Bandura, 1994 paper, p6.

73     What encourages self-efficacy… See Albert Bandura’s 1994 paper and F. Pajares ‘Overview of Social Cognitive Theory and of Self-efficacy’, available at: www.emory.edu/EDUCATION/MFP/eff.html

If people experience only easy… 1994 paper, p2.

74     Bandura argues…1994 paper, p2.

The newborn comes without any sense… 1994 paper, p8.

it is in peer relationships… 1994 paper, p9.

Bandura asserts… 1994 paper, pp 9-10.

75     Young people should find their learning… Curriculum for Excellence, 2004.

Bandura argues that failing… 1994 paper, p2.

A Woolfolk Hoy… ‘What do Teachers need to know about self-efficacy?’ Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American research Association, San Diego, CA.

Other experts on self-efficacy… D. H. Schunk and F. Parajes, 2001, ‘The Development of Academic Self-efficacy’, in A Wigifeld and J. Eccles (eds) Development of Achievement Motivation, Academic Press, San Diego, p15.

The primary cause of disengagement… Alan McLean, The Motivated School, p124.

76     Zimmerman and Cleary… B.J. Zimmerman and T. J. Cleary, ‘Adolescents’ Development of Personal Agency’, p59  Available from: www.des.emory.edu/mfp/ZimmermanClearyAdoEd5.pdf

In the 1950s Eric Erikson… Erikson, E. H. 1959, ‘Identity and the Lifecycle; Selected Papers’, New York: International Universities Press, p95.

Martin Seligman’s helpfully defined… For background on Seligman’s ‘learned helplessness’ experiments see his summary in Learned Optimism.

using terms like… ‘A Curriculum for Excellence, Progress and Proposals’, 2006, p12.

Research by Schunk, Hanson and Cox… Schunk, D.H., Hanson, A.R. & Cox, P.D., 1987, ‘Peer Model Attributes and Children's Achievement Behaviors’, Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 54-61.

77    Disengaged students need alternative learning… Alan McLean, The Motivated School, p129.

The HMIE Document… ‘Improving Scottish Education’, A report by HMIE on inspection and review 2002-2005, p8 www.hmie.gov.uk/documents/publication/hmieise.pdf

Research shows that… F. Pajares, 1997, ‘Current Directions in Self-efficacy Research’ in M. Maehr and P R. Pintrich (Eds) Advances in Motivation and Achievement, Greenwich, 10, p21.

Chapter 9

80     Why optimism matters… See Martin Seligman’s Learned Optimism and The Optimistic Child for evidence on the importance of optimism. The Centre for Confidence and Well-being also has summaries on research on optimism. To access go to: http://www.centreforconfidence.co.uk/pp/evidence.php?p=c2lkPTQ=

Scheier and Carver’s dispositional optimism… For an introduction to their work see S.C., Schieier (2005) in Snyder, C.R. & Lopez, J.S. (Eds), Handbook of Positive Psychology, Oxford University Press, pp231-243.

81     The basis of optimism does not lie… The Optimistic Child, p52.

Dr Karen Reivich, co-author… Dr Reivich’s views are summarised on the Centre’s website. You can also hear Dr Reivich talk about her work and explain the ideas presented in this chapter. Go to

82     Recently Seligman has had second thoughts… He outlined these thoughts at the Centre’s Vanguard Programme in September 2005.

83     I want to stress these are thinking styles… See note above on how to access Dr Reivich’s lecture on the Centre for Confidence and Well-being’s website.

Research into twins… See Martin Seligman The Optimistic Child and Learned Optimism for a discussion of these studies.

All set-backs are soon catastrophised… The Optimistic Child, p110.

84     The Penn Resiliency Program… This is outlined in detail in The Optimistic Child. Further information can easily be found at http://www.ppc.sas.upenn.edu/prpsum.htm

The techniques favoured by Professor Seligman… Seligman outlines his use of the ABCDE technique in both Learned Optimism and The Optimistic Child. You can also hear him talk about it on the Centre’s website. Go to the following URL and choose the second audio clip from Martin Seligman http://www.centreforconfidence.co.uk/pp/audio.php?p=c2lkPTQ=

85 TTT7     Allocating responsibility… See Helen McGrath and Toni Noble, Bounce Back Teachers’ Handbook, p175.

86     The doctor says you need… This is taken from Dr Reivich’s lecture. See note above on how to access on the Centre’s website.

87     Research led by Dr Mika Kivimaki… A summary of this research is included in the evidence section of Optimism in the Centre’s Positive Psychology Reources. (See note above.) It was published in Health Psychology 24 (4), 2005, pp 413-421.

Optimism and sport… For a good outline of the importance of optimism to sporting performance see the chapter on this topic in Martin Seligman’s Learned Optimism.

TTT 9     When to use optimism… See Martin Seligman’s Learned Optimism for his views on ‘realistic optimism’ and his advice on when to use optimism techniques.

Some argue that it is more dispositional… This is the view taken by Scheier and Carver, for example. (See note above on their work.)

Defensive pessimists expect the worst… Julie K. Norem, The Positive Power of Negative Thinking, pp1-2.

88     Defensive pessimism isn’t different… Julie K Norem, p48.

89    If you lose hope, somehow you lose the vitality… A quote by Martin Luthar King in The Trumpet of Conscience, New York: Harper & Row, 1967.

Professor C. R. Snyder portrays hope in a different light. He claims that hope is not an emotion but a cognitive ability ...  Snyder. C.R., 2000, ‘Hypothesis: There is Hope’, in C.R., Snyder, Handbook of Hope: Theory, Measures, and Applications, Academic Press.
See chapter 19,’Hope Theory’ pp231-243 in Snyder. C.R., Lopez. J.S, 2005, The Handbook of Positive Psychology., Oxford University Press, pp231-243.

Research shows that those who have high hopes are healthier… Irving, L. M., Snyder, C. R., & Crowson, J.J., Jr, 1998, ‘Hope and the negotiation of cancer facts by college students’, Journal of Personality, 66, pp198-214 http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1467-6494.00009

and have good relationships with others… Snyder, C. R., Cheavens, J., & Simpson, S., 1997,  Hope: An Individual motive for social commerce. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1, 1-12. http://www.sciencedirect.com/

They also achieve more academically… Snyder, C. R., Wiklund, C., & Cheavens, J., 1999, ‘Hope and the academic success of college students’,  Paper presented at the American Psychological Association Convention, Boston. Snyder, C. R., et al (1991) the will and the ways: development and validation of an individual – differences measure of hope.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570-585. http://www.sciencedirect.com/
and in sport… Curry, L. A., et al, 1997, ‘The role of hope in academic and sport achievement’,   Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, pp1257-1267. http://www.sciencedirect.com/

Good personal relationships early in life that foster trust appear to be critically important in nurturing hope in young people…  See Snyder. C. R., McDermott, D., Cook, W., & Rapoff, M. A., 1997, Hope for the Journey: Helping Children Through Good Times and Bad, Boulder, CO/ New York: Westview/ Basic Books.

hope is generally seen as something we can learn… Snyder. C. R., ‘Genesis: The Birth and Growth of Hope’ p25-38 in C.R. Snyder (ed) Handbook of Hope: Theory, Measures and applications Edited by C.R. Snyder(2000).  Academic Press pp25-38.

90    Snyders definition suggests that there are two processes at work when an individual is being hopeful… See chapter 19 p257-276, in Snyder. C.R., Lopez. J.S., 2005, Handbook of Positive Psychology, Oxford University Press, pp231-243.

Encouraging young peoples hope… For more tips on bringing hope into the classroom see: McDermott. D., Hastings. S., ‘Children: Raising Future Hope’, in C.R. Snyder, Handbook of Hope: Theory, Measures, and Applications, Academic Press.  
For tips on raising your own levels or hope or to apply one to one coaching using tools and techniques from Hope theory see: McDermott, PHD., & C.R. Snyder, 1999, Making Hope Happen: A workbook for Turning Possibilities into Reality, New Harbinger Publications Inc,  pp23-24

Chapter 10

92     All definitions of resilience… Helen McGrath and Toni Noble, Bounce Back Teachers’ Handbook, p27.

Luthar, Cicchetti and Becker… Luthar, S.S., Cicchetti, D. & Becker, B., 2000, ‘The Construct of Resilience: A Critical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Work’, The Society for Research in Child Development, 543-562.

93    Researchers and care providers alike… William Frankenburg, statement to the Fifth International Conference on Early Identification of Children at Risk in 1987.

For example, a 2001 research study… Singleton, N., Bumpstead, R., O’Brien, M., Lee, A., & Meltzer, H., 2001, Psychiatric Morbitdity Among Adults Living in Private Households, The Stationary Office, London.

Social and cultural changes… An effective commentator on social changes, particularly affecting young people is Richard Eckersley. Much of his argument is summarised in Well & Good, Text Publishing, Melbourne, 2004.

93     The International Resiliency Project… It is based at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia. http://www.resilienceproject.org

94     What conditions encourage resilience… See Bonnie Bernard, Fostering Resiliency in Kids: Protective Factors in the Family, School and Community, NRRC, 1991. The NNRC is the National Resilience Resource Centre and more information on Bernard and other work can be accessed from there: http://www.cce.umn.edu/nrrc/resource/index.html
McGrath and Noble also give a review of the literature in the Bounce Back Teachers’ Handbook.

95     The central component of effective coping… Werner, Emmy and Ruth Smith, Vulnerable but Invincible: a Longitudinal Study of Resilient Children and Youth, New York: Adams, Bannister and Cox, 1989 (1st edition 1982).

96     She recounted that when she started… You can listen to Dr Reivich’s lecture on the Centre for Confidence and Well-being’s web-site http://www.centreforconfidence.co.uk/pp/audio.php?p=c2lkPTQ=#11

Penn Resiliency Program… This is described in detail in The Optimistic Child. For more up to date information http://www.ppc.sas.upenn.edu/prpsum.htm  

97     Bounce Back… See the Bounce Back Teacher’s Handbook for a full list of resources. There is also a web-site http://www.bounceback.com.au

98     Next to families… Bounce Back Teacher’s Handbook, p62.

99     In normalising we say…    Bounce Back Teacher’s Handbook, p45.

100     If people spend too much time… Psychologists refer to this as ‘external locus of control’. Jean Twenge summarises the importance of internal local of control to well-being etc in her book Generation Me and her 2004 paper, ‘It’s Beyond My Control: A Cross-temporal Meta-analysis of Increasing Externality in Locus of Control’

Brigid Daniels argues… You can listen to Professor Daniel on the Centre for Confidence and Well-being’s web-site http://www.centreforconfidence.co.uk/pp/audio.php?p=c2lkPTU=#14

101 TTT12     The Bounce Back acronym… See Bounce Back Teacher’s Handbook, pp53-55.

102 TTT13     Examples of questions… See Bounce Back Teacher’s Handbook, pp179-80.

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