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References for handbook chapters 11-16

Chapter 11

105              An inclusive teacher never makes youPaul Hamill and Brian Boyd, Interviews with young people about behavioural support. Available on LTS website in the inclusive education section http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/Inclusiveeducation/aboutinclusiveeducation/     


… columnist Sylvia Patterson:  Sylvia Patterson, ‘The Best Teachers are Those Trying to Break the Rules’, in The Sunday Herald, 18th February 2007.


Next to physical survival… Stephen R. Covey, The 7 Habits of Highly Successful People, p241.


Gallup, for example… See Gallup website for information on their views on the importance of relationships with managers/supervisors.



Other research confirming the importance… See Malcolm Gladwell, Blink, pp39-43, for an outline of the research on the importance of good relationships and communications between doctors and patients.


The research echoes findings of John Gottman… Dr Gottman is internationally known for his research. He has published a variety of academic papers and self-help books. More information can be found on this website http://www.gottman.com/about/john_gottman/


106              Self-Determination theory… See the Self-Determination theory website for an outline of the theory and access to research papers http://www.psych.rochester.edu/SDT


Dutch academics… Wubbels, Th., Brekelmans, M. & Hoomayers, H., 1991, ‘Interpersonal Teacher Behaviour in the Classroom’, in B.J. Fraser & H.J. Walberg, (Eds), Educational Environments: Evaluation, Antecedents and Consequences. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press, pp141-160.


Boyd summarises the conclusions… Brian Boyd ‘Scottish Pupils: Characteristics and Influences; in Scottish Education’, in T.G.K. Bryce and W. M. Humes, 1999, Scottish Education, Edinburgh University Press, p734.


In a more recent piece… Paul Hamill and Brian Boyd, Interviews with young people about behavioural support, (see note above).


107              Good teachers help you… Paul Hamill and Brian Boyd, Interviews with young people about behavioural support, (see note above), p6.


as far as these young people… Paul Hamill and Brian Boyd, Interviews with young people about behavioural support, (see note above), p6.


But research carried out by Shelly Gable… Gable et al, ‘What do you Do when things go right?’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2004, 87(2), p228-245.


111       Encouragement is affirming… Alan McLean, The Motivated School, p100.


Chapter 12


112              Our vision is of a world class school system… Donald Dewar’s foreword to the White Paper Targeting Excellence - Modernising Scotland's Schools.


Scotch education David S. Robb (ed.), The Collected Poems of Alexander Scott, Mercat Press, Edinburgh 1994, p. 144.


Enterprise activity is low in Scotland… The data in this section can be obtained from the ‘Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 2006’. The quote given is from p7. GEM can be obtained on-line from



Determined to Succeed… Information on this initiative can be found on the web at http://www.determinedtosucceed.co.uk


113       School staff are generally positive… ‘National Evaluation of Determined to Succeed - Phase 2: Early Impact across Scotland’, p39.

Full Report:  http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2007/02/19105635/0


Another report was published in January 2007… ‘Evaluation of the Whole School Approach to Enterprise in Education’, May 2004 - January 2006

Full Report:  http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2007/01/25155556/0


The results for the girls are of concern… ‘Evaluation of the Whole Schools Approach to Enterprise Education’, p80.


113              Inside the Black Box… This publication by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam is available on the  web at http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/kbla9810.htm


114              The authors then followed this up with another publication  called Working Inside the Black Box… ‘Assessment for Learning in the Classroom’, NfER Nelson, 2004.


When anyone is trying to learn… D. Royce Sadler, 1989, ‘Formative Assessment and the Design of Instructional Systems’, Instructional Science, 18, 119-44.


115       For example, research reported by the educational psychologistButler, R., 1987, ‘Task-Involving and Ego-Involving Properties of Evaluation: Effects of Different Feedback Conditions on Motivational Perceptions, Interest and Performance’, Journal of Educational Psychology, 79 (4), 474-482.


115              Teachers using formative assessment… The OECD has undertaken research in formative assessment. This is available in a November 2005 OECD Policy Brief: ‘Formative Assessment: Improving Learning in Secondary Classrooms’. 


students were better motivated… The quotes in this paragraph come from the ‘Evaluation of Project 1 of the Assessment is for Learning Development Programme: Support for Professional Practice in Formative Assessment - Final Report’, Institute For Education for Scottish Executive, 2004, pp40-44.


116              In the motivated school… Alan McLean, 2003, ‘Constructing the Motivated School’, TES Scotland, September 19.


Writing for the Centre for Confidence… This can be accessed on the Centre’s website in the motivation section of PP Resources http://www.centreforconfidence.co.uk/pp/techniques.php?p=c2lkPTExJnRpZD0zJmlkPTEzOA==


the most important ‘feel good’ factorThe Motivated School, p124.


to adopt a  self-improvementThe Motivated School, p124.


117              The truly committed co-operative group… David W. Johnson and Roger T. Johnson, 1998, ‘Co-operative Learning and Social Interdependence Theory, Social Psychological Applications to Social Issues Paper’, p14. Paper available from http://www.co-operation.org/pages/SIT.html


Box 11 Robins and Blue Tits… Arie de Geus, 1999, The Living Company, Harvard Business School Press, USA


118       What is Co-operative Learning… Information can be obtained in the paper and website listed above.


Caring and committed friendships… Johnson, D. W. & Johnson, R. T., 1989, Cooperation and Competition: Theory and Research, Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.


The five ‘elements of co-operative groups… Making Cooperative Learning Work, David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson Theory into Practice, Vol. 38, No. 2, Building Community through Cooperative Learning (Spring, 1999), pp. 67-73


120              Criticisms of Co-operative Learning… See for example, Maureen Stout, The Feel Good Curriculum.


The evidence behind Co-operative Learning… This is taken from the 1998 paper by Johnson and Johnson quoted above.


between 1898 and 1989… Johnson and Johnson 1998, p4.


the average person co-operating… Johnson and Johnson, 1998, p6.


both competitive and individualistic structures… Johnson and Johnson, 1998, p9.


Psychological health and well-being… The quotes in this section are from Johnson and Johnson, 1998, pp11-13.


121              Co-operative experiences… Johnson and Johnson, 1998, p11.


In Scotland North Lanarkshire… You can read a newsletter reporting the project at http://www.northlan.gov.uk/education+and+learning/education+services/parent+post+newsletter/ppn4+-+co-operative+learning.html



Chapter 13


123              A classroom education is largely… R. F. Mackenzie, In Search of Scotland, p79.


Sport and fitness See Biddle and Ekkekakis, 2005, ‘Physically Active Lifestyles and Well-being’, in Huppert, F. et al, (eds), The Science of Well-being, Oxford University Press, p141-167. Csikszentmihalyi, M., 1991, Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience, Harper Perennial. Thayer, R.E., 1996, The Origin of Everyday Moods, Oxford University Press, New York.  Induce a high state of positive affect through doing. Watson, D., Hubbard, B. & Wiese, D., 2000, ‘General Traits of Personality and Affectivity as Predictors of Satisfaction in Intimate Relationships: Evidence from Self and Partner Ratings’, Journal of personality, 68, pp413-449. Dienstbier, R.A. et al, 1987, ‘Catecholamine Training Effects from Exercise Programs: A Bridge to Exercise-Temperament Relationships’, Motivation and Emotion, 11, pp297-318.


Outdoor Connections… Information on this initiative is available from



The National Foundation for Educational Research… This research is quoted on the LTS site



124              Learning and Teaching Scotland’s… The above link takes you to the page linking the four capacities and outdoor education.


Children are more imaginative… R. F. Mackenzie, p54.


Box 13: Young People’s Orchestras in Venezuela… Information is easily available on the web. At the time of writing (August 2007) there are plans to start a similar project in Scotland. See http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article2246441.ece

Chapter 16


164       Professor Martin Seligman and others… See Chapter 9.


Things won are doneWilliam Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida, Act 1, Scene 2.


Robert White… R. B. White, ‘Motivation Reconsidered, ‘The Concept of Competence’, Psychological Review, 66, 297-333.


You can see it in the joy… Jonathan Haidt, The Happiness Hypothesis, p220.


167       Ever more people today have the means  Viktor E. Frankl. Information on Frankl can

                        be found at http://www.webwinds.com/frankl/frankl.htm


Self-determination theorists… For information see http://www.psych.rochester.edu/SDT/


This is an ethic which encourages us to believe... See Oliver James’s work for a discussion on this and some supporting evidence. Richard Eckersley’s book, Well & Good, is also useful.


168       The Goods Life V. The Good Life… For a discussion of the relationship of happiness to economics see Richard Layard, 2006, Happiness: Lessons from a New Science. Another good survey of this territory is in Luigino Breni and Pier Luigi Porta, 2007, Economics and Happiness, Framing the Analysis, Oxford University Press, Oxford. The Centre’s website also contains a section on happiness and economics. http://www.centreforconfidence.co.uk/pp/overview.php?p=c2lkPTc=


Research also shows… See David Myers’ work for an overview of the research on what makes people happy http://davidmyers.org/davidmyers/assets/Funds.friends.faith.pdf

Also Myers, D.G. & Diener, E., 1995, ‘Who is happy?’, Psychological Science, 6, pp10-19.


An influential theory… Robin Dunbar, 1996, Grooming, Gossip and the Evolution of Language, Harvard University Press.


All of this accords with the research… Jennifer Crocker and Lora E. Park, The Costly ……  .


An ideology of extreme personal freedom… Jonathan Haidt, p133.


Like other thinkers, Professor Martin Seligman… See Authentic Happiness.


Following his extensive research… You can listen to Professor Seligman talk about this on the Centre’s website



Something about the vastness and beauty… Jonathan Haidt, pp200-201.


169       vital engagement  See a paper by Jeanne Nakamura and Mihaly Csikszentmihaly. It is available from



He who has a why… Viktor E. Frankl. See note above about Frankl.


Research shows… See Martin Seligman, Authentic Happiness for a discussion of signature strengths at work and how this is not confined to professions.


The advantage of Seligman’s prescription… See the meaningful life in Authentic Happiness. Also the Centre’s summary of Seligman’s three levels in Chapter 14 of this book.


171       It’s not what I thought it would be… Michael Anthony Jackson, Life’s Lessons from History’s Heroes, p61.


Mick Jackson’s own solution… See Wildhearts in Action website http://wildheartsinaction.org


How selfish soever man may be supposed… Adam Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments.


These ideas are also in tune with… For a discussion of these values see my earlier book The Scots’ Crisis of Confidence.


Box 18 The quotes are all taken from Michael Anthony Jackson, Life’s Lessons from History’s Heroes.







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