105 An inclusive teacher never makes you… Paul Hamill and Brian Boyd, Interviews with young people about behavioural support. Available on LTS website in the inclusive education section http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/Inclusiveeducation/aboutinclusiveeducation/
… columnist Sylvia Patterson: Sylvia Patterson, ‘The Best Teachers are Those Trying to Break the Rules’, in The Sunday Herald, 18th February 2007.
Next to physical survival… Stephen R. Covey, The 7 Habits of Highly Successful People, p241.
Other research confirming the importance… See Malcolm Gladwell, Blink, pp39-43, for an outline of the research on the importance of good relationships and communications between doctors and patients.
The research echoes findings of John Gottman… Dr Gottman is internationally known for his research. He has published a variety of academic papers and self-help books. More information can be found on this website http://www.gottman.com/about/john_gottman/
106 Self-Determination theory… See the Self-Determination theory website for an outline of the theory and access to research papers http://www.psych.rochester.edu/SDT
Dutch academics… Wubbels, Th., Brekelmans, M. & Hoomayers, H., 1991, ‘Interpersonal Teacher Behaviour in the Classroom’, in B.J. Fraser & H.J. Walberg, (Eds), Educational Environments: Evaluation, Antecedents and Consequences.
Boyd summarises the conclusions… Brian Boyd ‘Scottish Pupils: Characteristics and Influences; in Scottish Education’, in T.G.K. Bryce and W. M. Humes, 1999, Scottish Education, Edinburgh University Press, p734.
In a more recent piece… Paul Hamill and Brian Boyd, Interviews with young people about behavioural support, (see note above).
107 Good teachers help you… Paul Hamill and Brian Boyd, Interviews with young people about behavioural support, (see note above), p6.
… as far as these young people… Paul Hamill and Brian Boyd, Interviews with young people about behavioural support, (see note above), p6.
But research carried out by Shelly Gable… Gable et al, ‘What do you Do when things go right?’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2004, 87(2), p228-245.
111 Encouragement is affirming… Alan McLean, The Motivated School, p100.
112 Our vision is of a world class school system… Donald Dewar’s foreword to the White Paper Targeting Excellence - Modernising
Scotch education… David S. Robb (ed.), The Collected Poems of Alexander Scott, Mercat Press, Edinburgh 1994, p. 144.
Determined to Succeed… Information on this initiative can be found on the web at http://www.determinedtosucceed.co.uk
113 School staff are generally positive… ‘National Evaluation of Determined to Succeed - Phase 2: Early Impact across
Another report was published in January 2007… ‘Evaluation of the
The results for the girls are of concern… ‘Evaluation of the Whole Schools Approach to Enterprise Education’, p80.
113 Inside the Black Box… This publication by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam is available on the web at http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/kbla9810.htm
114 The authors then followed this up with another publication called Working Inside the Black Box… ‘Assessment for Learning in the Classroom’, NfER Nelson, 2004.
When anyone is trying to learn… D. Royce Sadler, 1989, ‘Formative Assessment and the Design of Instructional Systems’, Instructional Science, 18, 119-44.
115 For example, research reported by the educational psychologist…
115 Teachers using formative assessment… The OECD has undertaken research in formative assessment. This is available in a November 2005 OECD Policy Brief: ‘Formative Assessment: Improving Learning in Secondary Classrooms’.
… students were better motivated… The quotes in this paragraph come from the ‘Evaluation of Project 1 of the Assessment is for Learning Development Programme: Support for Professional Practice in Formative Assessment - Final Report’, Institute For Education for Scottish Executive, 2004, pp40-44.
116 In the motivated school… Alan McLean, 2003, ‘Constructing the Motivated School’, TES
Writing for the Centre for Confidence… This can be accessed on the Centre’s website in the motivation section of PP Resources http://www.centreforconfidence.co.uk/pp/techniques.php?p=c2lkPTExJnRpZD0zJmlkPTEzOA==
… the most important ‘feel good’ factor… The Motivated School, p124.
… to adopt a self-improvement… The Motivated School, p124.
117 The truly committed co-operative group… David W. Johnson and Roger T. Johnson, 1998, ‘Co-operative Learning and Social Interdependence Theory, Social Psychological Applications to Social Issues Paper’, p14. Paper available from http://www.co-operation.org/pages/SIT.html
118 What is Co-operative Learning… Information can be obtained in the paper and website listed above.
Caring and committed friendships… Johnson, D. W. & Johnson, R. T., 1989, Cooperation and Competition: Theory and Research,
The five ‘elements of co-operative groups… Making Cooperative Learning Work, David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson Theory into Practice, Vol. 38, No. 2, Building Community through Cooperative Learning (Spring, 1999), pp. 67-73
120 Criticisms of Co-operative Learning… See for example, Maureen Stout, The Feel Good Curriculum.
The evidence behind Co-operative Learning… This is taken from the 1998 paper by Johnson and Johnson quoted above.
… between 1898 and 1989… Johnson and Johnson 1998, p4.
… the average person co-operating… Johnson and Johnson, 1998, p6.
… both competitive and individualistic structures… Johnson and Johnson, 1998, p9.
Psychological health and well-being… The quotes in this section are from Johnson and Johnson, 1998, pp11-13.
121 Co-operative experiences… Johnson and Johnson, 1998, p11.
123 A classroom education is largely… R. F. Mackenzie, In Search of
Sport and fitness… See Biddle and Ekkekakis, 2005, ‘Physically Active Lifestyles and Well-being’, in Huppert, F. et al, (eds), The Science of Well-being, Oxford University Press, p141-167. Csikszentmihalyi, M., 1991, Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience, Harper Perennial. Thayer, R.E., 1996, The Origin of Everyday Moods,
Outdoor Connections… Information on this initiative is available from
The National Foundation for Educational Research… This research is quoted on the LTS site
124 Learning and Teaching
Children are more imaginative… R. F. Mackenzie, p54.
164 Professor Martin Seligman and others… See Chapter 9.
Things won are done… William Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida, Act 1, Scene 2.
Robert White… R. B. White, ‘Motivation Reconsidered, ‘The Concept of Competence’, Psychological Review, 66, 297-333.
You can see it in the joy… Jonathan Haidt, The Happiness Hypothesis, p220.
167 Ever more people today have the means… Viktor E. Frankl. Information on Frankl can
be found at http://www.webwinds.com/frankl/frankl.htm
Self-determination theorists… For information see http://www.psych.rochester.edu/SDT/
This is an ethic which encourages us to believe... See Oliver James’s work for a discussion on this and some supporting evidence. Richard Eckersley’s book, Well & Good, is also useful.
168 The Goods Life V. The Good Life… For a discussion of the relationship of happiness to economics see Richard Layard, 2006, Happiness: Lessons from a New Science. Another good survey of this territory is in Luigino Breni and Pier Luigi Porta, 2007, Economics and Happiness, Framing the Analysis, Oxford University Press,
Research also shows… See David Myers’ work for an overview of the research on what makes people happy http://davidmyers.org/davidmyers/assets/Funds.friends.faith.pdf
Also Myers, D.G. & Diener, E., 1995, ‘Who is happy?’, Psychological Science, 6, pp10-19.
An influential theory… Robin Dunbar, 1996, Grooming, Gossip and the Evolution of Language,
All of this accords with the research… Jennifer Crocker and Lora E. Park, The Costly …… .
An ideology of extreme personal freedom… Jonathan Haidt, p133.
Like other thinkers, Professor Martin Seligman… See Authentic Happiness.
Following his extensive research… You can listen to Professor Seligman talk about this on the Centre’s website
Something about the vastness and beauty… Jonathan Haidt, pp200-201.
169 … vital engagement… See a paper by Jeanne Nakamura and Mihaly Csikszentmihaly. It is available from
He who has a why… Viktor E. Frankl. See note above about Frankl.
Research shows… See Martin Seligman, Authentic Happiness for a discussion of signature strengths at work and how this is not confined to professions.
The advantage of Seligman’s prescription… See the meaningful life in Authentic Happiness. Also the Centre’s summary of Seligman’s three levels in Chapter 14 of this book.
171 It’s not what I thought it would be… Michael Anthony Jackson, Life’s Lessons from History’s Heroes, p61.
How selfish soever man may be supposed… Adam Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments.
These ideas are also in tune with… For a discussion of these values see my earlier book The Scots’ Crisis of Confidence.