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Developments in type

Here are a few developments in ideas and questionnaires on type. One of the trends is to talk more, as Jung does, of eight functions. This refers to the four mental functions and whether they are extraverted or introverted.

Dr John Beebe

John Beebe is a distinguished Jungian analyst who uses psychological type in his practice. He is also Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California Medical School, San Francisco. Beebe has developed Jung's work by outlining an archetypal model. Beebe takes issue with how Isabel Briggs Myers interpreted Jung yet he still uses the framework to explain aspects of this theory. John Beebe's work gives an in-depth understanding of the individual psyche. He wrote an article called 'evolving the eight-function model' for the British Association of Psychological type. You can read a version of it here.

Professor Dario Nardi

Professor Nardi works at the UCLA in Los Angeles. He is the author of several popular books on type.  He utilizes EEG (electroencephalogram) and GSR (galvanic skin response) equipment to profile people's neurological activity while they perform tasks, such as solving math problems, sorting objects blindfolded or telling stories based on ambiguous visual scenes. Professor Nardi is currently conducting research which he says shows how the functions Jung identified can be mapped in the brain. You can get more information on his website, complete a questionnaire which gives you 'your cognitive profile' and view a presentation on his research. Professor Nardi has not as yet published his research  in a peer reviewed journal which means it is unlikely to convince academics who are not part of the type community.


Roy Childs is a British occupational psychologist who has been working with the MBTI™. He is Managing Director of a consultancy called Team Focus. He has now devised an instrument called the Type Dynamics Indicator which uses Jungian concepts and MBTI reporting. The questionnaire, however, asks respondents to answer each question in two ways: what they think is true for them (is) and what they would like to be the case (want). For a discussion on the pros and cons of this see the following articles:

Roy Child's article on the TDI (So you want to be an ENFJ?)
Rowan Bayne's response
Roy Child's response to Rowan Bayne
Rowan Bayne's response to Roy Child


Stever Myers (no relation to the original founders) is another British based psychologist who has developed Jung's ideas.  Instead of measuring people's preference for functions and attitudes, Myers' instrument MTR-i looks at usage. This instrument has been particularly developed for use with teams and identifies team roles.

Jung Type Indicator

This is another Jungian based instrument which reports in MBTI terminology. It says it is specifically designed for personal development. There is a website and profiles, again with MBTI letters.

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